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Map of Frankish territiories

Paul Vidal de la Blache’s 1912 Atlas général d’histoire et de géographie illustrates Frankish territory in 714 (public domain, via Wikimedia Commons).

The Frankish kingdom has a lot of languages and dialects when Charlemagne assumed sole rule of the kingdom in 771. He ruled all of the colored areas above and then some. Some of the tongues were derived from Latin, others were Germanic. Then, there was the Latin of the Church and official documents that few people spoke, fewer read, and still fewer wrote.

See my post at Anna Belfrage’s blog for more about the diversity of languages in Charlemagne’s realm and how I addressed them in my novels, The Cross and the Dragon and The Ashes of Heaven’s Pillar.